A thoroughly entertaining encounter saw Manuel Pellegrini's team take the lead twice, through Stevan Jovetic on both occasions, only to be pegged back each time by the Reds.
Firstly, Jordan Henderson curled home perfectly from just inside the opposition area, before Raheem Sterling produced a decisive moment by side-footing beyond Joe Hart to level again.
Rodgers' charges were then victorious in the shootout at Yankee Stadium; aside from the result, the Northern Irishman was particularly keen to refresh tactics and fitness.
"It's more about football fitness than anything," the boss explained at his post-match press conference. "We played different formations tonight.
"In the first half, we played a 4-4-2 diamond that refreshed the players with some of the work we did last season. At times, we worked it well and at other times, there were areas that we can improve on. It was good to see it in this environment.
"Then in the second half we went more to a 4-3-3 and then changed it with 20 minutes to go to 4-2-3-1. It's really about the physical fitness of the players and reintroducing the tactical element of the game.
"Overall, the players were excellent; we got two goals and could have scored three more - Joe Hart made three outstanding saves. Then it went to penalties and we showed composure to finish them.
"It was a great game; Manchester City are a wonderful team and they'll go close in the Premier League again this year. At this moment of pre-season, it was a great game for us."
On the two goals conceded, he added: "I thought they were unfortunate. Jovetic is very bright, he is alive in the box, he just nicked in and it was unfortunate with the first goal that it was deflected off Stevie.
"His second goal was something similar. We have to also respect the quality that we're playing against - they are a top side. We played very well; we conceded a couple of goals, but so did they."